ドラッグワー終焉に向かうか? - 大麻の合法化法案がカリフォルニア州議会に提出される

2009年03月02日

ドラッグワー終焉に向かうか? - 大麻の合法化法案がカリフォルニア州議会に提出される

[投稿者:佐藤研一朗]

財政破綻中のカリフォルニア州からすごいニュースが、州の議員がマリファナを合法化して、税金をかけて売るべきだといる法案を議会に提出した。この計画によれば年間1000億円の収入を州にもたらすだろうとのこと。マリファナをお酒と同等に扱うので未成年への販売は禁止される。

 ・財政難のカリフォルニア州での提案
 ・大麻をアルコールと同じようにあつかう
 ・1兆4000億円の大麻マーケット
 ・ギャングやドラッグカルテルを駆逐するためには
 ・ドラッグワーは終焉に向かうか
 ・グリーンニューディールの緑は大麻の緑か

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仙台インターネットマガジンの大麻特集一覧
大麻と、ギャングと、街づくりその1
大麻と、ギャングと、街づくりその2
大麻と、ギャングと、街づくりその3
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感想はこちらから

以下参考資料
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大麻関連


KCRA 3から この読者のインターネット投票では84%が大麻解禁に賛成だそうだ。

CNNから この読者のインターネット投票では95%が大麻解禁に賛成だそうだ。

Arizona AG: Marijuana legalization could curb Mexican drug cartel warfare
アリゾナの司法長官が、メキシコのドラッグカルテルの収入の60-70%は大麻からくることを指摘。カルテル同士の抗争で今年に入ってすでにメキシコで1000人以上の死傷者がでている。大麻解禁がカルテルの収入源をたつことに役立つという論は説得力がある。議論を進める必要があると示唆した。

MARIJUANA INC. - Inside American´s Pot Industry - Part 1
CNBCのリポート、これを見るとカリフォルニア州の一部では、大麻が事実上の解禁状態になっている。
あるメンデシーノ郡では収入の90%が大麻から、60%の人々が大麻関連のビジネスに依存している。郡の法律が大麻に対して非常にゆるくなっているようだ。これはアメリカの未来な気がする。


<研一朗のコメント>
日本の記事もあったのでこちらに貼り付けておきます。
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大麻の市販解禁を提案=全米初、財政難で加州議員

(時事通信社 - 02月26日 11:01)

 【ロサンゼルス25日時事】税収不足から深刻な財政難にあえぐ米カリフォルニア州で25日までに、乾燥大麻(マリフアナ)の一般向け販売を解禁し、1オンス(約28グラム)当たり50ドル(約4500円)の売上税を課す議員立法が議会に提案された。

 州議会事務局によると、医療目的の大麻使用は既に同州やネバダ州、アリゾナ州などで合法化済みだが、市販解禁案は全米初という。

 提案者のアミアーノ議員(民主党)は、同州内の医療目的の大麻生産額は年間140億ドル(約1兆2600億円)に上ると指摘、「一般向けに解禁すれば年10億ドルの税収をもたらし、闇取引もなくなる」と持論を展開した。 

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2009年02月23日 11時02分00秒
Gigazine
アメリカ人の40%がマリファナ合法化を推奨、アメリカでのマリファナに対する考えとは


アメリカでマリファナに関してアンケートしたところ40%近く「マリファナを合法化すべきである」と答えて人がいたそうです。マリファナは麻薬に分類され人体に悪影響を及ぼすものですが、一方マリファナはタバコやアルコールに比べて人体へ悪影響を与えないと主張する人もおり、まだまだ研究が必要そうです。

また、経済面でもマリファナを合法化すべきでないかという考え方もあるようで、今後人体への影響と経済効果を考えた議論が行われていきそうです。

詳細は以下より。


Rasmussen Reports?: The Most Comprehensive Public Opinion Site.

アメリカで「マリファナは合法化されるべきか」という質問を電話アンケートしたところ、40%の人々が「合法化すべき」と回答し、46%の人々は「合法化すべきでない」と回答したそうです。「どちらがいいか分からない」と回答した人は14%いたとのこと。

男女別に見てみると、男性のマリファナ合法化推奨派は約50%、女性は約40%で、女性より男性にマリファナ合法化を望んでいる人が多いことも分かったそうです。特に40歳以下の人々の方がマリファナの合法化を支持する人が多かった事も明らかになったとのとのこと。また、WHOによるとアメリカ人の42%がマリファナを吸った経験があると見積もられており、これは調査した17ヶ国の中では最も高い数値になっているそうです。

科学者の中には「アメリカで最も利益を得る作物はマリファナである」と主張している人もおり、経済学者ミルトン・フリードマンを含む3人の科学者は「マリファナを合法化することによって毎年77億ドル(約7200億円)節約することができ、少なくとも24億ドル(約2200億円)の税収を得ることができる」と主張しているとのこと。また、マリファナがアルコール・タバコと同じように課税された場合、毎年62億ドル(約5800億円)の税収を得られると予想されているとのこと。

アメリカ国内ではマリファナの人体への影響や経済効果などに関して議論されているようですが、今後マリファナが合法化されるかどうか更に深い議論がされると考えられます。

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US frontline
更新2009年02月25日 19:35米国東部時間
税収対策にマリファナ合法化?~カリフォルニア州議会で法案提出
 カリフォルニア州のトム・アミアノ州議会議員(民主、サンフランシスコ選出)は23日、同州内での医療目的でないマリファナの使用を飲酒と同様に合法化し、課税する法案(AB390)を提出した。成立すれば全米初となる。

 ロサンゼルス・タイムズによると、アミアノ議員は、現在420億ドルもの巨額の赤字に陥っている同州の財政を立て直すためにも、新たな税収が必要だと主張する。

 同議員の法案は、ビールやワインなどの酒類を規制する法律とほぼ同じものだ。21歳未満の未成年のマリファナ使用は違法とする。マリファナを飲酒と同じように合法化することで、警察機関がより深刻な犯罪の取り締まりに力を入れられるようになると説明する。

 ある見積もりによれば、カリフォルニア州のマリファナ市場は140億ドル規模とされ、野菜の57億ドル、ぶどうの26億ドルをはるかに上回る。マリファナが課税対象となれば、州の税収は年間10億ドル増える計算になる。

 カリフォルニア州サンタバーバラ、サンタモニカ、コロラド州デンバー、ワシントン州シアトルなど一部の都市では、マリファナの取り締まりの優先順位を最下位に置くという法案を制定している。また、カリフォルニア州オークランドは2004年、マリファナが合法化されれば、課税対象とするという法案を制定した。

 しかし、反ドラッグ団体はマリファナ合法化法案に対し、懸念を示している。合法化されればマリファナに依存する人々が増え、若者の使用率も上昇、ハイになった状態で車を運転する人も急増すると指摘している。
ーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーー
FEBRUARY 25, 2009
California Legislator Sees Benefit in Legalizing Pot
By STU WOO

SAN FRANCISCO -- A state legislator proposed legalizing the sale of marijuana in California, saying the plan would generate more than $1 billion annually for the cash-strapped state.

Assemblyman Tom Ammiano introduced a bill Monday that would legalize possession and sales of the drug for people aged 21 and older. The legislation would impose regulations and taxation similar to those for alcohol sales. Federal law makes it a crime to possess or sell marijuana, so the measure, if passed, would likely face an immediate legal challenge.

Mr. Ammiano, a San Francisco Democrat who is well known in the state as a champion of liberal causes, proposes a tax of $50 on an ounce of marijuana, which sells for a few hundred dollars on the street.

California's dire financial situation was the impetus for proposing the bill, said Quintin Mecke, a spokesman for Mr. Ammiano. The state, which last week closed a $42 billion budget deficit through steep spending cuts and tax increases, should be making money on pot sales, Mr. Mecke said. He estimated that marijuana is a $14 billion-a-year crop in California.

Assemblyman Tom Ammiano says taxes on drug sales could help the state. Above, a worker at a cannabis dispensary weighs medicinal marijuana.

The pot-legalization bill will be up against significant opposition. "It's one of these [proposals] that is based on fallacious assumption that if we could only legalize marijuana, that we will have fiscal and social Shangri-La," said John Lovell, a lobbyist who represents three California police groups.

California has been drifting toward more-permissive approaches to pot. Various ways of decriminalizing marijuana have been considered for years in the state. In 1996, state voters passed a ballot initiative legalizing medical-marijuana use. Medical-pot regulation has been left largely to local jurisdictions, rather than statewide agencies.

But last summer, California Attorney General Jerry Brown created controversy by issuing restrictive new guidelines on how medical-marijuana operations should do business. He said that they should be small nonprofits and indicated that larger operations may be operating illegally.

A Zogby poll commissioned by a group that backs legalization found last week that 58% of West Coast respondents approved of selling and taxing marijuana like alcohol or cigarettes. A Rasmussen poll last week found that 40% of people nationwide support legalizing marijuana, with 46% against.

A spokeswoman at NORML, a group that backs legalization, said about a dozen states have decriminalized the use or possession of pot in some way. Alaska has one of the nation's most-relaxed rules, with no penalty for possessing one ounce or less in a residence.
—Justin Scheck contributed to this article.

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Deadline USA

Could marijuana tax help shore up California's finances?

Legislation to legalise marijuana sparks heated debate as state seeks to fill its revenue pot


A California state assemblyman from San Francisco has introduced legislation that would legalise and tax marijuana, a move he hopes will help shore up the state's dire finances.

The bill by San Francisco representative Tom Ammiano, would legalise the cultivation, possession and sale of marijuana by people 21 and older. It would charge growers and wholesalers a $5,000 (£3,400) initial franchise fee and a $2,500 annual renewal fee, and would levy a $50 per ounce fee on retailers.

The law, which would make California the first state to legalise marijuana, would inject an estimated $13bn a year in revenue into California's empty coffers. Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on Friday signed a $130bn budget that raises sales and income taxes, and dramatically slashes spending. States across the country are facing massive revenue shortfalls, as income and real estate tax receipts fall and outlays for unemployment insurance and health coverage rise.

"It is simply nonsensical that California's largest agricultural industry is completely unregulated and untaxed," Marijuana Policy Project California policy director Aaron Smith said at a news conference announcing the bill. "With our state in an ongoing fiscal crisis — and no one believes the new budget is the end of California's financial woes — it's time to bring this major piece of our economy into the light of day."

California Republicans seem to oppose the bill.

"I think substance abuse is just ruining our society," Assemblyman Paul Cook told a California newspaper, as if it were slothful dope-heads and not, say, gluttonous financial services executives that had wrecked our economy. "I can't support that."

The bill is the first of its kind in California, according to Marijuana Policy Project communications director Bruce Mirken, who cites research showing that marijuana is America's largest cash crop.

I can't predict if this bill will pass, or even get out of committee. (Note that in Pumping Iron, the champion bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger famously tokes on what appears to be a joint, while reclining on a weight bench). But it is certainly one of many legalisation efforts to come.

In his fantastic book on generational marketing, The Age Curve, demographer Kenneth Grombach predicts that as the dope-friendly baby boom generation takes power from the far more conservative "silent generation" born between 1925 and 1945, marijuana will become legal "very soon":

Wait until marijuana is legal. The former hippies will come out of the woodwork to try a little taste of the weed again.

The Sacramento Bee conveniently captured one of the main, and most spurious, arguments against legalisation:

Theresa Loya, 43, of Mariposa, said the bill indirectly could affect children.
"I'm afraid it would send the wrong message – that drugs are OK," she said.

Does Ms Loya fear children might get the idea one can smoke some dope and become, say, president of the United States, or the greatest swimmer of all time?

One hurdle to legalisation: federal law would still outlaw it.

President Barack Obama, who has acknowledged smoking pot in his younger years, has said he does not favour legalisation of marijuana, but has indicated he would end federal drug enforcement agency raids on medical marijuana suppliers in states that allow it.

Since 1996, 13 states have enacted laws allowing marijuana use for medicinal purposes, according to the Marijuana Policy Project. California was the first.


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NSNBC
DEA to halt medical marijuana raids
Holder confirms states to have final say on use of drug for pain control

updated 5:42 p.m. ET, Fri., Feb. 27, 2009

Supporters of programs to provide legal marijuana to patients with painful medical conditions are celebrating Attorney General Eric Holder’s statement this week that the Drug Enforcement Administration would end its raids on state-approved marijuana dispensaries.

Federal raids on medical marijuana distributors continued at least into the second week of Barack Obama’s presidency, when federal agents shut down at least two dispensaries in California on Feb. 3.

Holder was asked about those raids Wednesday in Santa Ana, Calif., at a news conference that was called to announce the arrests of 755 people in a nationwide crackdown on the U.S. operations of Mexican drug cartels. He said such operations would no longer be conducted.
Story continues below ↓advertisement | your ad here

“What the president said during the campaign ... will be consistent with what we will be doing here in law enforcement,” he said. “What (Obama) said during the campaign ... is now American policy.”

Obama indicated during the presidential campaign that he supported the controlled use of marijuana for medical purposes, saying he saw no difference between medical marijuana and other pain-control drugs.

“My attitude is if the science and the doctors suggest that the best palliative care and the way to relieve pain and suffering is medical marijuana, then that’s something I’m open to,” Obama said in November 2007 at a campaign stop in Audubon, Iowa. “There’s no difference between that and morphine when it comes to just giving people relief from pain.”

White House spokesman Nick Shapiro hinted at the policy shift shortly after the California raids, telling The Washington Times that the dispensaries were legal in California and that the Obama administration’s stance was that “federal resources should not be used to circumvent state laws.”

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Major shift in federal policy
The new policy represents a significant turnabout for the federal government. During the Bush administration, DEA agents shut down 30 to 40 marijuana dispensaries, the agency said.

The Web site of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy had yet to catch up to the policy shift as of Friday afternoon, and was still prominently featuring a “ Medical Marijuana Reality Check” declaring that “marijuana is not considered modern medicine” and arguing that “no animal or human data support the safety or efficacy of smoked marijuana for general medical use.”

Medical marijuana

Thirteen states allow the sale, distribution and use of marijuana for limited medical purposes:

• Alaska
• California
• Colorado
• Hawaii
• Maine
• Michigan
• Montana
• Nevada
• New Mexico
• Oregon
• Rhode Island
• Vermont
• Washington

Holder’s comments received little notice Wednesday, overshadowed by the news of the drug arrests. But supporters of legalized marijuana seized on them as an important sign of progress in their campaign.

“Holder’s statement marks a dramatic shift in U.S. drug policy and is a major victory for the 72 million Americans who reside in states where the use of medical cannabis is legal,” said Paul Armentano, deputy director of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, said in a statement.

Thirteen states allow the cultivation, sale and use of medical marijuana.

Armentano said the shift would add momentum to campaigns in states that are considering their own medical marijuana laws. The New Jersey Senate approved such a bill Monday, and Gov. Jon Corzine said he would sign it if it cleared the state Assembly.

Charles Lynch, who operated a state-approved dispensary in Morro Bay, Calif., before it was raided in 2007, also welcomed the new policy.

“It’s a good thing for California. It’s a good thing for the other 12 states that have medical marijuana laws,” said Lynch, who was convicted in August of federal drug charges.

Lynch could face five years in prison when he is sentenced late next month, but in light of the new federal policy, he said he would appeal his conviction and seek a presidential pardon.

Lynch contended that dispensaries like his were vital for patients in the last stages of a painful illness.

“Having one in your community, wherever that may be, is a good thing because it helps these people that need relief,” he said.


佐藤研一朗の翻訳本
仙台インターネットマガジン代表の佐藤研一朗の翻訳本が発売されました
アメリカを代表するリバータリアン ロン・ポール議員の初の日本訳本
佐藤研一朗が「税金廃止論」を出筆しました。

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投稿者 佐藤研一朗 : 2009年03月02日 10:27
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